Fluid Mechanics Seminar

  • Date: 11/19/2015
  • Time: 16:00

University of British Columbia


Practice talks for the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics Conference

The spreading of a viscoplastic droplet by capillary action
Maziyar Jalaal, Neil Balmforth, Boris Stoeber, (The University of British Columbia)

Abstract: The spreading of yield stress liquid droplets on a dry surface occurs in a number of applications such as 3D printing. In the current study, the surface-tension-driven spreading of a yield-stress (Bingham) droplet on a solid wetting surface is studied. Neglecting gravity and using lubrication theory for viscoplastic fluids, we derived the thin film equation in 2D. Equations were solved numerically, where to avoid the moving contact line singularity, we used a pre-wetted film. Numerical solutions show the decelerating spreading of the droplet and its arrest due to the yield stress. Additionally, the final shape of the droplets was constructed, using an asymptotic method. Results were compared with the numerical solutions, where agreements were observed.

Squirming through shear thinning fluids

Charu Datt, Gwynn Elfring, (The University of British Columbia)
Lailai Zhu, (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne)
On Shun Pak, (Santa Clara University)

Abstract: Many microorganisms find themselves surrounded by fluids which are non-Newtonian in nature; human spermatozoa in female reproductive tract and motile bacteria in mucosa of animals are common examples. These biological fluids can display shear-thinning rheology whose effects on the locomotion of microorganisms remain largely unexplored. Here we study the self-propulsion of a squirmer in shear-thinning fluids described by the Carreau-Yasuda model. The squirmer undergoes surface distortions and utilizes apparent slip-velocities around its surface to swim through a fluid medium. In this talk, we will discuss how the nonlinear rheological properties of a shear-thinning fluid affect the propulsion of a swimmer compared with swimming in Newtonian fluids.

Hydrodynamic interactions of cilia on a spherical body

Babak Nasouri, Gwynn Elfring, (The University of British Columbia)

Abstract: The emergence of metachronal waves in ciliated microorganisms can arise solely from the hydrodynamic interactions between the cilia. For a chain of cilia attached to a flat ciliate, it was observed that fluid forces can lead the system to form a metachronal wave. However, several microorganisms such as paramecium and volvox possess a curved shaped ciliate body. To understand the effect of this geometry on the formation of metachronal waves, we evaluate the hydrodynamic interactions of cilia near a large spherical body. Using a minimal model, we show that for a chain of cilia around the sphere, the embedded periodicity in the geometry leads the system to synchronize. We also report an emergent wave-like behavior when an asymmetry is introduced to the system.

Characterization of undulatory locomotion in granular media

Zhiwei Peng, Gwynn Elfring
, (The University of British Columbia)
On Shun Pak, (Santa Clara University)

Abstract: Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but a recently proposed resistive force theory (RFT) in granular media has been shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ this model to investigate the swimming characteristics of an undulating slender filament of both finite and infinite length. For infinite swimmers, similar to results in viscous fluids, the sawtooth waveform is found to be optimal for propulsion speed at a given power consumption. We also compare the swimming characteristics of sinusoidal and sawtooth swimmers with swimming in viscous fluids. More complex swimming dynamics emerge when the assumption of an infinite swimmer is removed. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swimmer. The results complement our understanding of undulatory locomotion and provide insights into the effective design of locomotive systems in granular media.
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Location: ESB 2012